‘Coffee Cuts Risk of Death and Cardiovascular Disease’


Methods and results

Coffee subtypes were defined as decaffeinated, ground, and instant, then divided into 0, <1, 1, 2–3, 4–5, and >5 cups/day, and compared with non-drinkers. Cardiovascular disease included coronary heart disease, cardiac failure, and ischaemic stroke. Cox regression modelling with hazard ratios (HRs) assessed associations with incident arrhythmia, CVD, and mortality. Outcomes were determined through ICD codes and death records. A total of 449 563 participants (median 58 years, 55.3% females) were followed over 12.5 ± 0.7 years. Ground and instant coffee consumption was associated with a significant reduction in arrhythmia at 1–5 cups/day but not for decaffeinated coffee. The lowest risk was 4–5 cups/day for ground coffee [HR 0.83, confidence interval (CI) 0.76–0.91, P < 0.0001] and 2–3 cups/day for instant coffee (HR 0.88, CI 0.85–0.92, P < 0.0001). All coffee subtypes were associated with a reduction in incident CVD (the lowest risk was 2–3 cups/day for decaffeinated, P = 0.0093; ground, P < 0.0001; and instant coffee, P < 0.0001) vs. non-drinkers. All-cause mortality was significantly reduced for all coffee subtypes, with the greatest risk reduction seen with 2–3 cups/day for decaffeinated (HR 0.86, CI 0.81–0.91, P < 0.0001); ground (HR 0.73, CI 0.69–0.78, P < 0.0001); and instant coffee (HR 0.89, CI 0.86–0.93, P < 0.0001).



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