Treatment for grierson-gopalan syndrome

Burning feet syndrome, also called Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome, is a set of symptoms wherein a patient feels discomfort and a burning sensation in their feet. It is particularly bothersome since symptoms are intense, especially at night, making it interfere with your sleep. Staying up all night will make you feel exhausted during the day. Symptoms may range from mild to severe and occur mainly on the soles of the feet, but they may also involve the tops of the feet, ankles, and even the lower legs. With certain conditions burning feet may also be accompanied by numbness or sensation of a needle or pin-pricking your skin (paresthesia) or both. 

Causes of Burning Feet Syndrome

Commonly, neuropathy is the cause of burning feet. Damaged nerve fibers are more likely to misfire and become hyperactive. Even though there is no wound, the injured nerves cause the brain to experience pain. In most cases of neuropathy, the leg nerves are the first to suffer damage. Damage to the peripheral sensory nerves that carry signals from the spinal cord to the extremities causes it to happen. These people also frequently experience tingling and numbness in their feet. It might be minor or debilitating. Chemotherapy, genetic illnesses, auto-immune disorders (including rheumatoid arthritis), exposure to hazardous chemicals, infections, and kidney failure are additional causes of peripheral neuropathy.

Other conditions where symptoms of Burning feet syndrome or Grierson-Gopalan syndrome can result are categorized into the following: 

Metabolic disorders

An underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may cause a burning sensation in the feet, weight gain, dry skin, or fatigue. Additionally, diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2 diabetes) may impact the body’s peripheral nerves, particularly the sensory nerves in the legs and feet. Peripheral nerve damage can occur due to high glucose levels or poorly managed diabetes, especially in the long run.

Nerve damage

When nerve damage occurs, this might either be due to illness, trauma, surgery, toxins, or chemotherapy drugs. These can result in conditions like peripheral neuropathy, as aforesaid the most common cause, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, Complex pain regional syndrome, and Morton’s neuroma, which are all associated with Burning Feet Syndrome.


An athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that can cause numerous symptoms, including burning, stinging, and itching of the feet.

Nutritional imbalances or deficiency

The deficiency of vitamins B5, B-12, and E can result in a sensation of burning feet.


Any exercise or physical activity that involves prolonged standing on the feet can cause stress and associated burning and numbness.

Improper footwear

When worn with sensitive feet, ill-fitting or tight-fitting shoes will increase pressure on particular foot areas and may even result in a burning sensation.

Other conditions

Burning Feet Syndrome can also be caused by several other conditions, including alcoholic neuropathy brought on by excessive alcohol consumption, allergies, contact dermatitis, erythromelalgia, multiple sclerosis, chronic mountain sickness, psychological disorder (psychosomatic), hereditary causes, and unknown causes (idiopathic), to name a few.

Diagnosing Burning Feet Syndrome

Most patients with burning feet have a known reason, such as diabetes. For some persons, a simple diagnosis of burning feet brought on by neuropathy eliminates the need for additional testing.

Different tests are undergone in several cases whose burning sensation is sudden, rapidly worsening, or has no known explanation. Since no tests can objectively measure how intense foot pain or burning is, your doctor will try to identify the underlying cause of the symptoms.

Physical examination. Your doctor will inquire about your medical history, including any current medications you are taking and any physical symptoms you may be experiencing. Your physician will test your reflexes, and your feet will be checked for any indications of an infection, an injury, or other issues.

Laboratory tests. Testing of the spinal fluid, urine, or blood may occasionally be advised to assist in identifying the cause of burning feet. A simple blood test can also be used to determine vitamin levels.

Nerve function tests. If nerve damage is suspected, electrodiagnostic tests may be required.

  • Electromyography (EMG). An examination of muscle function using recordings of internal muscle electrical activity. For an EMG test, a probe is applied to the skin, or a needle is injected into the muscle.
  • Nerve conduction velocity test. This tests the ability of nerves to the transmission of impulses. When a neuron is stimulated, the muscle it controls responds, and the response is then measured.
  • Nerve biopsy. This is a very rare examination, but your doctor may suggest removing some nerve tissue and analyzing it under a microscope.

Treating Burning Feet Syndrome

Remember that the underlying causes or problems determine the course of treatment.

  • Foot soaks in ice water, or an ice bath can temporarily relieve BFS symptoms. A person with erythromelalgia should avoid this, as it could harm their skin.
  • Keep your feet away from heat exposure.
  • A massage can improve blood flow to a specific body part. Therefore, if a person suffers from BFS, they can massage their feet to increase blood flow and circulation to the needed areas.
  • Take over-the-counter painkillers (analgesics). Ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications that might temporarily reduce pain.
  • Apply topical creams and ointments to the skin on your feet. You can use nonprescription creams and ointments containing capsaicin on the feet to ease discomfort. The athlete’s foot can be treated with topical antifungal creams, lotions, sprays, or powders.
  • Insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs can regulate the blood glucose levels in diabetic people.
  • Nutritional supplements may be prescribed for people suspected of vitamin deficiencies.
  • Analgesics. Painkillers may be prescribed as topical, oral, and injectable narcotic and non-narcotic drugs. Lidocaine-containing patches, creams, lotions, sprays, and creams may relieve discomfort.
  • Antidepressants. Other medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants, may help treat persistent neuropathy pain.
  • Anti-seizure or anticonvulsant medications. Drugs like pregabalin, carbamazepine, and gabapentin can be used to relieve chronic pain.
  • Antifungal drugs. First, try over-the-counter medications like miconazole (Micatin) or terbinafine (Lamisil AT). Additionally, there are prescription antifungals such as naftifine (Naftin), itraconazole (Sporanox), and fluconazole (Diflucan). Oral medicines may be employed for infections that are resistant to topical treatments.

  • Physical activity and therapy 
  • Dietary modifications
  • Foot pads and shoe inserts (orthotic devices)
  • Surgery. When drugs or other more conservative means of treatment are ineffective, your healthcare provider may require orthopedic surgery.

Burning feet can sometimes be a mild sign of a minor condition, but it can also be a severe issue in other circumstances. Burning may indicate a more serious medical condition. If the burning or tingling sensation persists or worsens over time, and does not go away with home remedies, visit a physician or podiatrist to identify the cause.

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